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Stimulated by surprise, they turn thought back on action and on the knowing which is implicit in action. They may ask themselves, for example, «What features do I notice when I recognize this thing? What are the criteria by which I make this judgment? What procedures am I enacting when I perform this skill? How am I framing the problem that I am trying to solve?» Usually reflection on knowing-in-action goes together with reflection on the stuff at hand. There is some puzzling, or troubling, or interesting phenomenon with which the individual is trying to deal. 

As he tries to make sense of it, he also reflects on the understandings which have been implicit in his action, understandings which he surfaces, criticizes, restructures, and embodies in further action. It is this entire process of reflection-in-action which is central to the «art» by which practitioners sometimes deal well with situations of uncertainty, instability, uniqueness, and value conflict.

Donald Schön
philosopher & design theorist
Source ↓

Schön, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books, p. 50.

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